Skip to main content

Full text of "Department of Zoology"

See other formats







Alexander Agassiz, LL.D., Curator of the Museum of Comparative 

Hermann A. Hagen, M.D., Ph.D., S.D., Professor of Entomology. 
Edward L. Mark, Ph.D., Hersey Professor of Anatomy. 
Charles B. Davenport, Ph.D., Instructor in Zoology. 
William McM. Woodworth, Ph.D., Instructor in Microscopical 

Walter Faxon, A.B., S.D., Museum Assistant in Zoology. 
Daniel D. Slade, M.D., Museum Assistant' inl Osteology . 
Alpheus Hyatt, S.B., Museum Assistant in PalcBontology. 
Samuel Garman, Museum Assistant in Herpetology and Ichthyology. 
William Brewster, Museum Assistant in Ornithology. 
Frances Slack, Librarian. 
Magnus Westergren, Artist. 

H. M. Kelly, A.M., Assistant in Zoology (Course 1). 
W. S. NiCKERSON, S.B., Assistant in Zoology (Course 2). 


All Zoological Courses in the Department of Zoology are conducted 
in the Natural History Laboratories, and the work under the Museum 
Assistants is carried on in the adjoining Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
which was founded by Professor Louis Agassiz in 1859. 

The formal instruction by lectures and laboratory work on Anatomy, 

Histology, and Embryology is conducted in rooms on the fourth and fifth 

floors in the northwest section of the Museum. Places for work upon 

the Museum collections are provided in connection with the rooms of the 

several Museum Assistants. There are a large number (17) of such 

rooms where specialists may work under proper restrictions, and have 

'easy access to the collections, which have all been arranged with a view 

^--^ to facilitating special investigations. 

f_ The fifth-floor lecture-room has a floor space of 2260 square feet and 

«s seats about 250 persons ; it has thirteen north and west windows, and is 

-^ provided with work-tables and microscopes for classes in sections of about 

err 25 each. The room on the fourth floor corresponding in position and size 

_j to the lecture-room above is provided with work-tables to accommodate 

about 40 students. It is also used as a lecture-room, having seats for a 

fi** class of 75. The laboratories on either side of the one last mentioned 

O'nave each five windows. The room having a west exposure is for class 

.work in Histology and Embryology; it has a floor space of 1200 square 

j^feet, and is furnished with the needed apparatus for advanced micro- 

Uscopical work. The room with north exposure is used exclusively by 

cJ persons carrying on original investigations in the anatomy and develop- 

yjsment of animals; it is equipped with the modern appliances for such 

-^ work. The course in Comparative Osteology is given in the room of the 

'^Museum Assistant in Osteology, on the fifth floor. 

^ There are a large series of diagrams (1300) and several cases of ana- 
tomical preparations in the laboratories and adjacent halls, as well as 
an extensive collection of embryological models, which are used in the 
illustration of lectures. 

The books which are most needed in connection with class instruction 
are in both the Museum Library and the Library of the Zo51ogical 
Laboratories. The latter at present contains about 200 volumes. Besides 
the zoological memoirs embraced in the transactions of learned societies, 
which are largely stored in the College Library, the Museum Library 
contains over 23,000 volumes and half as many pamphlets on Zoology and 
Palaeontology. It therefore rarely happens that any one engaged on a 


A\ (o% 

special topic of research fails to find at his command all the literature on 
the subject; and in such an event the desired works, if not at hand, are 
usually included in the regular orders for the increase of the Museum 
Library. The reading tables of the Museum Library, on which the cur- 
rent periodicals in Zoology, Palasontology, and Geology are arranged as 
soon as received, occupy a space 9 feet wide by 170 feet long, and are 
lighted by twenty-two windows. 

The collections of the Museum are in charge of Museum Assistants, 
who, at the discretion of the Director, afford opportunities for study to 
persons fitted to make intelligent and proper use of the material. The 
collections, having been made for tlie purpose of aiding in the advance- 
ment of science, are accessible only to persons who are already capable 
of making the best scientific use of them. 


The courses, descriptions of which follow, may be divided into three 
groups. In Group I. are embraced elementary courses intended for under- 
graduates only ; in Group II. , courses which are open to both graduates 
and undergraduates; in Group III., courses which are intended for 
graduates and courses of research. Undergraduates will be admitted to 
courses of research only in cases of exceptional proficiency ; but grad- 
uates are allowed to pursue and count toward the higher degrees any of 
the courses except those of Group I. 

The requirements for entrance to any given course are stated in the 
description of the course. From these statements the proper sequence of 
courses is readily made out. Students intending to give special attention 
to Zoology will do well to elect Course 1 in the Freshman year, and 
Course 2 in the Sophomore year, in order to leave sufficient time for work 
in more advanced courses. The only way in which Courses i, 2, and 3 
can he taken in less than three years is hy electing Courses 1 and 2 in the 
same year, since Course 3 cannot he taken nntil Course 2 is finished. 
Such students are advised to pursue, in addition to courses in Botany and 
Geology, elementary courses in Physics and Chemistry early in their 
undergraduate work, and also to give some attention to freehand drawing. 
It is even more important that they should be able to read scientific books 
written in German, as well as those in French. Foreign books should be 
ordered two or three months ))efore the l)eginning of the course in which 
they are needed. 

Although microscopes are provided by the University, those students 
whose means will allow are advised to purchase microscopes of their own. 
Those wishing advice on this sul)ject should consult the instructors. 

I. Primarily for Undergraduates. 
1. Zoology. — Lectures and laboratory demonstrations. Half-course. 
Tu., Th., and (at the pleasure of the Instructor) Sat., at 10 (first 
half-year). Professor Mark. (VIII^) 

The laboratory demonstrations of Course 1 M'ill occupy each student 
three hours a week: 9-10 and 11-1, Tu., Th., or Sat., or 2-5, Tu. 
or Th. 

This course is required as an introduction to Zoology 2 and Botany 2. It 
is open to Freshmen, and may be taken with advantage in the same year 
with Botany 1. It is intended for beginners and those who wish to get a 
comprehensive view of the subject. 

It is a fitting introduction to more extended work on the subject, and 
therefore all students who intend to devote a considerable portion of their 
time to Zoology are advised to elect this course in the Freshman year. 

The time is divided between topics connected with the morphology and 
distribution of animals, and an outline of human physiology. In the 
laboratory work the student is not taught to dissect or prepare objects for 
study, but is required to study preparations, and to make drawings of the 
objects studied. 

There will be at least two lectures a week, on Tuesdays and Thursdays 
at 10 o'clock. If there are additional lectures, they will occur iit the same 
hour on Saturdays. The laboratory demonstrations require three hours 
a week, and must be pursued on Tuesdays, Thursdays, or Saturdays. 
For this work the class is divided into sections. 

This course must be taken before Course 2, but it may be taken at the 
same time with the course in Botany (Bot. 2) which is the complement of 
Course 2. 

There are no recitations in this course ; but each student is expected to 
procure Huxley's Lessons in Elementary Physiology (revised edition, 
Macmillan & Co., $1.10). The following books, though not required, will 
be found useful in connection with this course, and students intending to 
pursue additional courses in Zoology are advised to procure one or more 
of them : Gegenbaur, Grundzixge der vergl. Anatomie (Engelmann, Leip- 
zig, 1878, Mk. 14), or the English translation of the same by Bell, Ele- 
ments of Comp. Anatomy (Macmillan & Co., 2l5., out of print) ; Claus, 
Lehrhuch der Zoologie (5th ed., Elwert, Marburg, 1891, Mk. 18), or Claus 
and Sedgwick, Elementary Text-hook of Zoology (2 vols., Macmillan & Co., 
$8.00). The following are not yet completed: Hatschek, Lehrhuch der 
Zoologie, Lief. 1-3 (Fischer, Jena, 1888-91, Mk. 9.50); Lang, Lehrhuch 
der vergl. Anatomie, Abth. 1-2 (Fischer, Jena, 1888-89, Mk. 10.50), or the 
English translation of the last by Bernard, Text-hook of Comp. Anatomy, 
Ft. i. (Macmillan & Co., 1891, $5.50). 


2. Morphology of Animals. Half-course. Mon., Wed., Fri., at 2.30 

(second half-year). Dr. C. B. Davexport. (V^O 

This course cannot he taken separately from Botany 2. Exceptions 
from this rule will be allowed only after consultation with and approval 
by the instructors in Zoology 1 and 2 and Botany 2. 

This course is open to those only who take or have taken Zoology 1. 
The number of students in the course is necessarily limited, and prefer- 
ence will therefore be given to those who intend to take Botany 4, Zoology 
3 or 4, or Geology 24, or to study Medicine. 

The aim of these two courses is to afford the necessary elementary train- 
ing for those whose tastes lead them to desire to continue the study of 
some branch of natural history, either in the later years of college life or 
after graduation. Since it is required as a preparation for several other 
electives, it should be taken early in the college course ; if possible, in the 
Sophomore year. 

The lectures in this course are given on Mondays and Wednesdays at 
2.30 P.M., and occasionally on Fridays at the same hour. The lectures 
are on the morphology of the more important types of animals ; those on 
a given group follow immediately the corresponding laboratory work, 
which consists in dissections of representatives of the types selected. 
Each student is expected to spend six hours a Aveek in the laboratory, and 
the hours may be arranged by consultation with the instructor, but they 
must be on the days named. 

Students will find Marshall and Hurst's Practical Zoology (2d ed., 1888, 
Smith & Elder, \0s. Gr?.), a valual)le aid in connection with laboratory 

II. Fo]{ Graduates and Undergraduates. 

3. Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrates. — Lectures and laboratory work. 

Til., Th., Sat., at 9. Dr. C. B. Davenport. (VII.) 

Course 3 is open to tliose only wlio have taken Courses 1 and 2 and 
Botany 2. 

'i'his course is intended for those who are particularly interested in 
Zoology, and also for those who wish to lay a broad foundation for their 
subsequent study of human anatomy as medical students. 

Lectures are given at 9 o'clock on Tuesdays and Thursdays, and, at the 
option of the instructor, a demonstration or other informal exercise may 
be hehl on Saturdays. In the lectures especial attention is given to evi- 
dences of the progressive modifications in the structure of the organs of 
vertetjrates exhibited in passing from lower to higher groups. 

Tlic hiboratory work must be i)erformed on the three days mentioned, 
and rcrjnircH at least six hours a week. 

It is desirable for those electing this course to be able to read easy- 
German prose. The following text-books are recommended : Wieders- 
heim's Lehrbuch der vergleichenden Anatomie der Wirhelthiere (2d ed., 
Fischer, Jena, 1886, Mk. 24). For those who are unable to read German, 
W. N. Parker's English translation of the aljridged edition of Wiedersheim 
{Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrates, Macmillan, 1886, $3.00) is the 
best substitute for the original. HertAvig's Lehrbuch der Entwicklungs- 
geschichte des 3Ienschen und der Wirhelthiere (3d ed., Fischer, 1890, 
Mk. 11), or the English translation (see under Course 5.) 

*4. Microscojiical Anatomy. — Lectures and laboratory work. Half- 
course. 3fo7i., Wed., Fri. (first half-year). Professor Mark and 
Dr. W. M. WooDWORTH. 

Course 4 is preparatory to Courses 5 and 20a. It is open to those only 
who have taken Course 2, and may be taken advantageously either with or 
after Course 3. It is for those who intend to prepare themselves for 
making special investigations, either as teachers of Zoology, or as physi- 
cians. It presupposes an elementary knowledge of animal morphology, 
and familiarity with the use of the microscope. As the number of stu- 
dents who can be accommodated is small, preference will be given to those 
preparing to take Course o or 20a. 

In this course instruction is given in methods of investigation. There 
will be one, or, at the option of the instructor, two lectures a week. The 
laboratory work should be arranged for the morning hours of Mondays, 
Wednesdays, and Fridays. 

The instructor is to be consulted before electing the course. 

Behrens, Kossel u. Schiefferdecker, Das Mikroskop (Braunschweig, 
1889, Mk. 9.80— bound), or Fol's Lehrbuch d. vergl. mikroskop. Ana- 
tomie, Lief. 1 (Leipzig, Wm. Engelmann, 1884, Mk. 3), and Whitman's 
Methods of Research in Microscopical Anatomy and Embryology (Cassino, 
Boston, 1885, $3.00), or Lee, The Microtomisfs vade 7necum, 2d ed. 
(London and Philadelphia, 1890), although not required, will be found 

*5. Embryology of Vertebrates. — Lectures and laboratory work. Half- 
course. Tu., Th., Sat. (second half-year). Professor Mark. 

Course 5 is open to those only who have taken Course 4. 

The lectures in this course are on the Embryology of Vertebrates. The 
laboratory work consists in the preparation and study of the chick at 
successive stages of development. Students should procure Foster and 
Balfour's Practical Embryology (2d ed., Macmillan & Co., $2.60) and 
Hertwig's Lehrbuch der Entwicklungsgeschichte des Menschen und der 
Wirbelthiere (3d ed., Fischer, Jena, 1890, Mk. 11), or the English trans- 


lation of the same by Mark, Text-hook of the Emhryology of Man and 
Mammals (Swan Soimenschein & Co., London; Macmillan & Co., New 
York. 1892). 

III. Primarily for Graduates. 
Courses of Research. 
20a. Anatomy and Development of Animals. Professor Mark. 

This course is designed for those only who are competent, with the aid 
of the instructor, to carry on some original investigation. Each student 
selects, with the advice of the instructor, the subject of his research, and 
the results are embodied in a thesis. The investigations of advanced stu- 
dents, when considered worthy of publication, usually appear in the Bulletin 
of the Museum. 

Persons contemplating this work will find it to their advantage to consult 
the instructor at an early date, — if possible, as early as the first of April 
of the preceding academic year. 

[20h. General Entomology. Professor Hagen.] 

This course is adapted for those who have an elementary knowledge of 
the structure of animals and plants, and have had some experience in 
collecting insects. Omitted in 1892-93. 

20c. Comparative Osteology. Dr. Slade. 

The osteological collection is open to advanced students for special 
study and investigation under the direction of the Instructor. 

For courses in Palaeontology see Geology 14 and 24. 


The Faculty of Arts and Sciences gives the degree of A.M. to students 
having the degree of A.B. (conferred by Harvard University, or accepted 
as suflScient by the Faculty of Arts and Sciences) who subsequently reside 
one year at the University and pass satisfactorily in an approved course 
of study, which may be limited to a single department, or may have a 
miscellaneous character. The requirement ordinarily consists of four 
advanced courses. Those in Zoology which may be chosen are embraced 
in Groups II. and III. 

To obtain the degree of Ph.D. in Natural History, a Bachelor of Arts 
must reside at the University at least two years, during which time he may 
obtain tlie Master's degree ; he must select a special subject in Natural 
History (Zoology, Botany, or Geology) for elaborate investigation, and 
the selection must be approved by the officers of the Department; to tliis 

subject he must devote an undetermined but protracted period of study, 
the results of which he must present in the form of a thesis ; if the thesis 
(which will not be received later than the first day of May in any year) is 
accepted, he must be prepared to pass an examination on all the details of 
his subject, and also upon the general subject matter of his department. 
The degree is not conferred merely for faithful study, but the candidate 
must give evidence of original research, and of ability to advance knowl- 
edge within the department of Natural History. 

The candidate for the degree of S.D. must have attained the degree of 
S.B. (conferred by Harvard University, or accepted as sufficient by the 
Faculty of Arts and Sciences) or C.E. before entering on his studies for 
that degree. The degree is conferred only upon persons who devote three 
years to special scientific study in the Graduate School, either in mathe- 
matical, physical, or natural sciences. The thesis (which will not be 
received later than the first day of May) must embody some contribution 
to science, and, when it has been approved, the candidate must pass an 
examination and show special attainments in one of the two subjects which 
he has chosen. Faithfulness or length of study will not be considered 
sufficient ground for the bestowal of the degree. 

For further information concerning degrees, — the time and form of 
applications, the conditions on which tlie degree of A.B. will be conferred 
upon graduates of other colleges, etc., — the Harvard University Catalogue 
should be consulted. 


The amount of scholarship and other aid which is annually assigned to 
undergraduates is at present about .$43,000. 

There have been assigned to graduates for the academic year 1892-93 
forty-seven Scholarships, the annual incomes of which average about 
$225. Eight of these are restricted to certain departments of study; 
the remaining thirty-nine are open to graduate students in Zoology. Of 
the twenty Fellowships assigned annually, six are restricted to certain 
departments. The remaining fourteen, having incomes varying from 
$500 to .$750, are open to graduate students in Zoology. 

The income of the Virginia Barret Gibbs Scholarship of the value of 
.$250 is assigned by the Faculty of the Museum, with the advice of the 
Professors of Zoology and of Comparative Anatomy of Harvard Univer- 
sity, to one or more students who intend to give special attention to the 
study of marine zoology. 

Students Avho propose to enter the Graduate School from other colleges, 
and are in need of aid, should apply to the Secretary of the University 
for a pamphlet on Harvard University Aid Funds. 



The income of the Humboldt Fund (about $400) is applied, with the 
advice of the Faculty of the Museum, towards the maintenance of one or 
more persons engaged in study at the Museum, at the Newport Marine 
Laboratory, or at the Wood's Holl Fish Commission Station. 

Several tables of the Newport Marine Zoological Laboratory are re- 
served for advanced students. Two of the tables of the U. S. Fish Com- 
mission at Wood's Holl are also at the disposal of the Director of the 
Museum, to whom aplication for these tables should be made before the 
first of May. Candidates should specify their qualifications and the 
work they intend to carry out. 


The tuition fee is $150. Graduate students have the same rights as 
undergraduates in securing rooms in College buildings and board at 
Memorial Hall. The price of College rooms ranges from $50 to $350 a 
year; that of board at Memorial Hall from $3.75 to $4.25 a week. 
Students who have homes in neighboring towns, or who are willing to live 
at a distance, may save the expense of a College room by joining the 
Foxcroft Club (fee $10 a year) and using its study. This club is a 
cooperative organization, where meals may also be had at prices varying 
from $2.00 to $3.00 a week. 

The Harvard Cooperative Society is an organization of students and 
officers of the University established for the purpose of procuring supplies 
for its members at a slight advance on wholesale prices. The Society 
keeps in stock ordinary supplies, such as books, paper, furnishing goods, 
and toilet articles, and fills orders for wood, coal, etc. Through a list of 
affiliated tradesmen in Boston and Cambridge, the Society secures to its 
members discounts of from 10 to 20 per cent, from regular retail prices. 

**♦ The Harvard University Catalogue may be had upon application to 
the Secretary of the University, 5 University Hall, Cambridge, Mass., and 
a list of the publications of the Museum upon application to the Director 
of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.